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Batik is a traditional technique inherited from generations of Miao people in Danzhai County, Anshun County, and Zhijin County, Guizhou Province, China. It was called "wax" in ancient times, and Miao language called "work map", meaning "batik service."
Danzhai County, anshun county and zhijin county are multi-ethnic inhabited areas with Miao as the main body. In the long and difficult situation of isolation from the outside world, residents here have gradually formed a self-sufficient lifestyle, and the ancient batik techniques have thus been preserved. According to the Hmong custom, all women are obliged to inherit batik skills, and each mother must teach her daughter to make batik. Therefore, Miao women have learned this skill since they were young. They planted their own cotton, woven fabrics, painted wax, cut and cut, and inherited from generation to generation. In this situation, these Hmong settlements have formed customs and cultures such as batik art, marriage festival rituals, social methods, and funeral customs.
Miao batik is an art created for the needs of the producers themselves. Its products are mainly daily necessities, including women's clothing, sheets, sheets, bags, headscarves, backpacks, bags, straps, funeral burial lists, etc.
Batik History Introduction
In general, the use of dyeing materials, the invention and application of dyeing technology should precede the batik process. That is to say, the production of batik technology will inevitably go through a long period of knowledge and application of dyeing materials. This indispensable link and process laid the foundation for the formation of wax anti-dyeing technology. Back in history, the Chinese people in the Paleolithic era had already used mineral pigments to color. According to the Chinese Encyclopedia, as early as 3000 BC, China had already used vegetable dyes such as leeks, Indigo, Indigo, and saffron for coloring. It was not until 2500 BC that India used the madder and indigo, 500 years later than China. In 2000 BC, Egypt used blue and red flowers, 1,000 years later than China. It can be seen that the history of Chinese textile dyeing is extremely long. Here, we study the germination and development process of Chinese dyeing to explore some basic conditions before batik production.
It is very difficult to explore the origin of batik. The material on which this research is based, in addition to written records, is more important than physical discovery. Unfortunately, the most commonly used batik objects in ancient life were used by poor people, and most of the people's life and death were simple. Therefore, there were very few objects unearthed in ancient batik. This is hardly comparable to the large and luxurious textiles left behind by the royal family. This situation will certainly bring difficulties to the study of Chinese Cham Batik. So how do we study this precious legacy? In addition to the written records and unearthed objects, there is also a very important aspect, that is, relying on logical reasoning to make analysis and judgment, in order to study Chinese batik has a certain degree of persuasion. Although these inferences may not be perfect, they can also provide a certain exploration and a way of thinking for further research. For this reason, it can be considered that from the use of a single mineral pigment by the Beijing Peak Cave people to the later rich and varied dyes; From the single color of the original ancestors painted to the later variety of color dyeing, media dyeing, dyeing, and so on, it must have experienced a long and tortuous road. However, the general trend of its occurrence and development should be: In terms of the use of color materials, The ancients developed from the use of natural colors(directly using natural objects with colors) to the processing of natural colors(grinding and mixing of natural objects to form colors), or both occurred at the same time, from the perspective of color decoration objects. The ancients developed from the use of color coloring on themselves(painted body, tattoo) to the use of color coloring on objects(painted pottery, clothing, etc.), or both; From the fabric dyeing process, the ancients developed from a single hand-painted color on the fabric to a variety of methods to color the fabric(painting, embroidery, printing, dyeing, etc.). Or multiple at the same time.
The above inference can be further confirmed based on the comparison between written records and unearthed objects. According to historians, human knowledge and application of colors and dyes are much earlier than textile colors. Human behavior experiences using color: "Human beings begin with coloring themselves(tattoos) -- developing to coloring objects. "Archaeological materials have proved that the earliest known color of mankind was red. 50,000 years ago, the people of Beijing Peak Cave had begun to use red mineral pigments. "In the late Paleolithic era, the Chinese had known staining. Beijing Zhoukoudian Shandingdong site has found hematite(ochre) powder and painted red stone beads, fish bones and other decorations. The Neolithic era was more colorful. There are many colors such as red, white, black, brown, and orange on the seven wine wares unearthed from the Hhumdu site in Yuyao, Zhejiang Province and the painted pottery unearthed from the Banpo site in Xi'an. Most of the pigments used at that time were powders developed from ore. In addition to powdery ochre, cinnabar was found in the Liwan Cemetery in Ledu, Qinghai. Xiyin village site in Shanxi county found painting and grinding ore and other tools. The powder of these ores was used for textile coloring.
During the Shang and Zhou dynasties, dyeing technology was not only used in clothing but also widely used mineral dyes(stone dyes) and plant dyes(grass dyes). In mineral dyes, cinnabar is the first to be used. Zhu Sha is the "Dan"(ie Mercury oxide) contained in our history books. The most persuasive example is the textile unearthed in the tomb of the West Zhou Dynasty in Rujiazhuang, Shaanxi Province. The Vermilion on it is dyed with cinnabar. At that time, dyeing technology was widely used, and there were full-time stained bureaucrats in the official court workshops to manage staining. In addition, some dye plants are also specially cultivated, and blue grass(indigo) is more common. In "Xiaxiaozheng", there has been a record of "May, opening blue". As far as the color variety is concerned, the Book of Songs mentions "green and green, green and yellow", "Zhuxiu", "contains Xuan Zai Huang" and so on. Dyeing tools, according to legend there are dye tanks and dye sticks. According to the characteristics of pigments and dyes, adhesive and mordant were used to establish a combination of coating, mordant and "grass stone".
In summary, the historical facts such as painted pottery and fabric dyeing show that batik production has sufficient conditions.
Main elements
Batik, formerly known as "waxy". One of the traditional folk printing and dyeing techniques. It is a traditional hand printing and dyeing technique that uses wax as an anti-dyeing material. According to research, the earliest and most accurate record of the word "batik" in the literature was written by Tangdaihuilin in the "All the Sound" volume 50: "Today, it is said that there is a light juice in the West, and the point is achieved., so the party wax point also. "" Valle "is a fabric dyed with auxiliary dyeing materials in the process of printing and dyeing. The appearance of Valium marks a major advancement in the printing and dyeing techniques of ancient silk in China. Batik is still very popular among Buyi, Miao, Yao, Yi and other ethnic groups. Clothes, blankets, and Bao Dan are often decorated with batik. The main method is to use a wax knife to dip the wax liquid, depict geometric patterns or patterns of flowers, birds, insects, fish, etc. on the white cloth, and then immerse it in an indigo cylinder(mainly blue), and use water to cook and wax the current pattern. The structure is rigorous, the lines are smooth, the decorative interest is strong, and it has a distinctive national style.
The invention of batik is based on people's repeated understanding and utilization of material characteristics, and requires certain environmental factors and technical conditions. Therefore, it is produced and developed under specific material conditions and cultural backgrounds. Batik is based on people's need for costume beautification. After the progress of human civilization to a certain extent, it is carried out on the basis of a variety of dyeing and weaving processes. Therefore, the time for batik production should be after the textile, printing and painting feeding processes mature. From the material point of view, batik does not have special requirements for fabrics, cotton, hemp, silk, wool fabrics can be adopted; Anti-dyeing materials are also not confined to specific varieties, and animal and plant wax can be used, usually with resin and beeswax; Dyeing can only be done by cold dyeing, usually plant staining, mainly indigo. From the perspective of scope, batik technology exists in many parts of the world, and its style and use are also varied. Due to the influence of geography and climate, batik is not suitable for the cold areas in the North, so batik is distributed in tropical and subtropical regions.
In terms of geographical areas, the areas where Chinese batik is mainly concentrated are Guizhou, Yunnan, Guangxi, Hainan, Sichuan, Hunan, Guangdong, Taiwan, Jiangxi and other places. In terms of ethnic groups, Chinese batik is mainly circulated and used among ethnic minorities. For example, Miao, Buyi, Yao, Shui, Yi, Tu, Bai, etc., according to dialects, Chinese batik is mainly concentrated in the Jidong dialect, the Sui dialect, and the Yi dialect. West Yunnan dialect and other areas. Different ethnic costumes and patterns are intrinsically related to different ethnic languages. "Among the Miao people with different costumes, there are differences in their languages. For example, there are large differences in costumes, and the differences in their languages are correspondingly large and the languages are the same. Its basic style of clothing is also similar. According to style, the style of Chinese batik can be divided into different types and characteristics, such as Danzhai type, Zhonganjiang type, weaving gold type, Lancang type, South Sichuan type, Hainan type, Wenshan type and so on. 2 This style classification is an art-oriented, cross-regional classification method. Different regions and different ethnic groups, the same ethnic group and different regions, their batik is different in use, technology, pattern, and style. One thing in common is that most of them are concentrated in the border areas of Southwest China.
The batik ice pattern is what it makes people praise it. The formation of the ice pattern is the formation of a batik embryo cloth in a continuous roll of infection, the wax trace is broken, and the dye is soaked in the white cloth with the cracks, leaving behind artificial and difficult to paint. Natural patterns, like ice flowers, Like the turtle pattern, really wonderful, the same pattern of wax painting fabric, after the infection, ice pattern is like human fingerprints are not the same, showing a fresh and natural beauty.
The batik "ice crack" pattern is similar to the "opening piece" of porcelain glaze with great artistic effect. The size of the crack, which can be mastered by people, can be properly expressed to depict objects with distinctive characteristics. To dye the multi-color level of the flower mouth, you can use the means of color seal wax, more expressive. Batik is mostly used to make craft clothing, wall hanging, table cloth and so on.
Under the current historical conditions, Miao batik has been transformed from the original thought mark of utilitarian content into an aesthetic form for appreciation. In the association and evaluation of this blue-and-white distant and mysterious symbol, people have commented on it. Realized and enriched its content. When people look at and evaluate this traditional cultural art from the perspective of modern civilization, it has actually transcended itself and entered the modern art life as an artistic element, realizing the leap to a new cultural atmosphere and aesthetic realm. Show new cultural significance. Inheritance
Batik art has been handed down from generation to generation in ethnic minority areas. After a long historical development process, it has accumulated rich creative experience and formed a unique National Art style. It is a flower of Chinese National art.
Batik patterns are based on realism. The artistic language is simple, naive, rugged and powerful, especially its shape is not constrained by the details of the natural image, and it has carried out bold changes and exaggerations. This kind of change and exaggeration comes from naive imagination and contains endless charm. The pattern pattern is very rich, with geometry and natural images. It usually comes from life or beautiful legends and has a rich ethnic color.
Batik is an ancient art, is also a young art, modern art, it summarizes the concise shape, simple and clear colors, exaggerated and deformed decorative lines, to meet the needs of modern life, suitable for modern aesthetic requirements.
Treatment before folding wax
First, the self-produced cloth is bleached and washed with grass ash, and then the cooked cloth is pressed into a paste and applied to the opposite side of the cloth. After drying, the horn is ground and polished. The slate is a natural grinding platform.
Folding wax
Put the white cloth on the board or table top, place the beeswax in the ceramic bowl or metal jar, and melt the wax with the charcoal ash or chaff shell fire in the fire basin. You can use the copper knife to dip the wax. The first step in painting is the business position. In some areas, large outlines are determined according to the pattern of paper scissors, and various patterns are drawn. Draw a large outline, you can easily draw a variety of beautiful patterns.
Folding staining
The method of dipping and dyeing is to put the painted wax pieces in a blue indigo dye cylinder. Generally, each piece needs to be soaked for five or six days. After the first soaking, it is taken out to dry and light blue. Add it to soak several times and you get dark blue. If you need to appear in the same fabric dark and light patterns, then after the first dip, on the light blue again painted Waxworks dip and dye, dyed after the emergence of two dark and shallow patterns. When the wax pieces are put into the dye tank, some "wax seals" are damaged and cracked due to folding, and natural cracks are produced, commonly referred to as "ice patterns." Sometimes "ice lines" are made as needed. This "ice pattern" often makes the batik pattern more rich and has a natural flavor.
Folded wax removal
After rinsing, then boiling with water, boiling waxy, after rinsing, the cloth will show a clear blue and white pattern.
If you want to experience the scene, you can go to danzhai County, Guizhou province, paomo village, where the batik art.